Wednesday, November 27, 2019
American university Essay My wish is to take a PhD post in an American university. This is because learning in America is enjoyable and also they offer quality education which you can not find many other places of the world. Learning in America is also important since there are varieties of different people from different parts of the world who have come to learn in America and furthermore the natives of America are also of different races so I will enjoy socializing with people of different races. Learning in America will also be pleasing to me since America has a good learning environment and also the country is democratic, and even there is peace unlike other countries which have continuous acts of terrorDoing my post of PhD in America will enable me to be competent since they have very learned and skilled professors in their universities especially lecturers of my architectural field. They also do have the necessary resources that can enable me to do my project well so as toad up my knowledge about archit ecture thus increasing my competence which will enable me to get a good job or make me be promoted in my present job level. Learning in America will be good for me since I want to achieve my career aspirations of being able to work globally at a very senior job level.I wish to do my PhD post in America because I like travelling and sharing ideas with people from many places and thus learning in America will enable me to share ideas with other scholars from other countries and this can enable me to gain new ideas and skill since the technology is dynamic and use them later in my work.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
How Is Love Presented In Victorian Love Poetry Essays How Is Love Presented In Victorian Love Poetry Essay How Is Love Presented In Victorian Love Poetry Essay Essay Topic: Christina Rossetti Poems Victorian poems show love to be very strong and overpowering. This is expressed in many different ways, they include negative imagery and, on the other hand, positive imagery. In Victorian times, there was a much suppressed attitude. This was because Queen Victoria was in mourning from the death of her husband, Albert, due to typhoid. The country became very solemn from this so people started to express their feelings through poetry. The country had strong morals on issues such as family values, polite manners and religion. The characteristics of Victorian values included thrift, hard work and morals, with a love of home and its comforts. Romance and realism, sentiment and common sense were a Victorians view of the family.The studied poems are First Love by John Clare, How Do I Love Thee? by Elizabeth Barrett Browning, A Birthday by Christina Rossetti, A Woman to her Lover by Christina Walsh and When We Two Parted by Lord Byron. John Clare describes his first ever experience of roman tic love, Elizabeth Barrett Browning describes all the different ways in which she loves someone, Christina Rossetti describes romantic love, Christina Walsh describes how love has made her miserable and what her lover can do to make it better and, unlike Christina Rossetti, Lord Byron describes love very negatively.Different events in the poets lives might have influenced the way in which they write about love. In John Clares early adult years, whilst working as a pot-boy in a public house, he fell in love with a local farmers daughter, Mary Joyce. Her father forbade her from ever meeting him and this could have influenced the way he wrote about love as he describes these first feelings in First Love. He could have written other poems about the fact that he was not allowed to meet her and questioned the reasons that they were not allowed to meet. When Elizabeth Barrett met Robert Browning, their courtship and marriage was carried out secretly, as was the composition of her poems.Th is may have influenced the way she wrote about love because of her personal experiences. Christina Rossetti had a very sad life; her family had financial difficulties when born due to her fathers deteriorating mental and physical health and she suffered a nervous breakdown at 14 followed by bouts of depression. During this time her, her mother and sister were intrigued by the Anglo-Catholic movement, this played a large part in her life as in her late teens she became engaged to James Collinson and later Charles Cayley, these relationships both ended due to religious reasons and she lived with her mother all her life. This could have contributed to the influence and the way she wrote about love because of her close family and traumatic past.While at Burgage Manor with his mother, Byron cultivated several important friendships with Elizabeth Pigot and her brother, John. Then, at College, he fell deeply in love with a fifteen year old choirboy, John Edleston; he later died and in his memory composed a series of elegies, Thyrza. He had many affairs after college: with NicolÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ Giraud, a boy who taught him Italian, Lady Caroline Lamb, with whom he broke off the relationship, his half-sister, Augusta Leigh and Lady Carolines cousin, Anna Isabella Milbanke to name a few. These facts could all have influenced his way to write about love, because of his extravagant ways and scandalous affairs.Attitudes towards love and relationships were very different from today. Victorian society was very respectful and etiquette was important. It was necessary for a single woman to know who she could and couldnt speak to; a proper introduction was usual and it was not polite to dance with a complete stranger. Young ladies were constantly chaperoned. To be seen in public alone with a man who was not family would most certainly ruin her reputation. Gentlemen had to decide whether or not they could smoke or have a glass of sherry in front of a lady. Also whether or not to bow or who to tip your hat at could cause problems if the wrong decision was made. Victorians did not recognise there was a lower class: chimneysweeps, rat catchers or factory workers had no place. Laws for protection of the poor were put into place; however, this resulted in workhouses being opened, which had very bad conditions. The romantic era showed the expressions of passion and personal feelings, much of the poetry stemmed around romance and the Victorian changing society. There was an increased interest in nature, a growing interest in scenery, on religion and the poetry of this time expressed these traits.All of the poems are Victorian love yet each expresses different moods and tones. In First Love, the overall tone is intimately emotional changing to realisation of the event which had occurred. The intimately emotional tone is set by using words which suggest intensity, suddenness and surprise. I neer was struckWith love so sudden The verb struck shows the impact of the expe rience and the adjective sudden shows how instantaneous it was. In How Do I Love Thee? the overall tone is dignified and intimate. Browning creates this tone by stating all the positive ways in which she loves someone. I love theefreelypurelywith the passion put to use Freely, purely and passion are all positives in a relationship, so she is using them to display the positivity to her love. The overall tone of A Birthday is very happy and jovial. This tone is created by comparing the beauty of being in love to natural elements. My heart is like a singing birdpaddles in a halcyon sea The singing bird and the halcyon sea are perfect, beautiful, natural elements so she is personifying these elements to show the greatness and happiness in her love. Although First Love is has a very similar tone to A Birthday they are not the same.A feature that they both share is that they both are quite positive and happy. However, something that the poems do not have in common is that Clares is extrem ely emotional and personal; about him and his experience. On the other hand Brownings could be compared to anyones experience and the beauty of being in love. The overall tone of A Woman to Her Lover is fairly heavy until the last stanza when she lightens the mood; although she is solemn throughout. She creates this mood by using a rhetorical question, answering it with what she would not like. Do you come to me to bend me to your willto make of me a bond slaveto bear you childrenin drudgery and silence no servant will I be. This shows that she clearly states to her lover how she expects him to treat her, putting her point across and wanting equality in this relationship; this equality in a relationship points to the equality she wants in the patriarchal society as it was then.In When We Two Parted the tone is quite cold and gloomy. This is created by the hate and coldness he portrays. When we two parted in silence and tearsdew of the morning sunk chill on myit felt like a warning o f what I feel nowlong, long shall I rue thee too deeply too tell. By starting the poem with silence and tears, he is already creating a very down atmosphere by using negative actions, the gloominess of saying how he feels but not what he is feeling is a clever technique he has used to mystify the poem and put on edge on what had happened thus carrying on to say how deeply he now hates her for what she did bringing about the cold mood surrounding the poem.There is a lot of different imagery in the poems as well as different language used by the poets and in different ways. In First Love, John Clare uses words that show that love can cause pain as well as pleasure. Struckbloodburnt Clare has used these painful words to describe his feelings from love to show that the assumption that love is all pleasure is proved wrong and is shown that there can be pain. The poet suggests that love has taken over his life and left him completely helpless. He does this by using metaphors to suggest th at his bodily functions have been affected. My legs refused to walk awaymy life and all seemed turned to claytook my sight awayI could not see a single thing He shows that he is fixated and cannot do anything stop it. John Clare used traditional imagery of love poetry in the poem. This is where he writes, her face it bloomed like a sweet flower. This shows that he is using a simile to compare the lady to something very sweet and beautiful, therefore creating a very powerful image in your mind.There is a contrast between his feelings and the lady he loves, she does not reciprocate his feelings for her and he is left disappointed. She seemed to hear my silent voice, and loves appeal to know. This explains that she knows what he is feeling yet does not return the love to him. The questions in the final stanza, Are flowers the winters choice? Is loves bed always snow, shows that he is in a heart-broken state of mind. I neer was struckwith love so sudden and so sweet are an example of si bilance in the poem, the effect this has is that it emphasises the words struck and sudden to make the most impact and show that he was struck by love and that the experience was so sudden. In How Do I Love Thee, Elizabeth Barrett Browning suggests that there are many ways she loves him by stating there are many and listing them. Let me count the waysI love thee to theI love thee to theI love thee freelyI love thee purelyI love thee with the I love thee with a By starting with ways plural she is already suggesting there are multiples, she then carries on to list the ways in detail. She tries to explain the size of her love by comparison in depth and breadth and height in everywhere her soul can reach indicating her emotions are too great to measure. She suggests that she will always love him. I shall but love thee better after death. Here, she is explaining that there is no end to her perfect love, that it is eternal and that not even death can stop it. By referring to religious lan guage such as gracepraisefaithsaintsGodElizabeth is making love sound like a religious experience. Browning uses much more religious, non-physical language to describe the lifelong love she has for her lover in comparison to Clares short, first love experience including language about the physical, clear and direct side. This may have been because Clares direct language could have been used to aim the simplicity and immediacy of the feelings and physical effects to the reader. Brownings language, however, is much more about the depth of her feeling and religious aspects rather than the physical side of it. The significance of the title of A Birthday by Christina Rossetti is that the poem is about celebrating love and a birthday is a celebratory time so it is a comparison of two very happy times.She uses images from nature to compare natural perfection with the perfect fulfilment of love My heart is like an apple-tree, whose boughs are bent with thickset fruit. She is comparing her h eart to an apple-tree. She may have used the apple tree instead of just a normal tree because an apple-tree is much better than a normal tree and is special as it is producing fruit. This therefore shows that she is trying to put the message across that her love is special. Rossetti has very ambiguous and extravagant feeling in the poem and she uses imagery to create this setting.This setting is created by her wanting of a dais of silk and down that can act as a celebratory monument of the love that she wants to decorate with vair and purple dyes carve it with doves and pomegranates to name a few of the list of decorations she describes. Rossetti uses elaborate language that helps depict a fairy tale image, whereas Brownings language gives a religious feeling to her poem contrasting to the simpler expression of love Clare displays. Christina Walsh uses military imagery in A Woman to her Lover to suggest the power men have over women. She does this by establishing control through a q uestion and answer that are implied and given.Do you come to me to bend me to your will? As conqueror to the vanquished She uses your will to suggest control over her that she predicts he wants therefore showing the men have power over women and she doesnt like it. The repetition of the phrase I refuse you gives a very stern tone that does not sound like the stereotypical Victorian woman; who should not rebel and set the terms of the relationship as she does. In stanzas one and two, Walsh uses images that suggest the loss of freedom Victorian women could suffer in marriage such as: bend me to your will, bond slave, bear you children, wearing out my life, no servant will I be and sit for feeble worship.In the phrase wakened women of our time Walsh is suggesting that modern women demand equality and that no modern woman is the one for him if that is what he wants, the alliteration shows up wakened woman to make them stick out so they linger in your mind optimises the heavy tone. In th e final stanza she uses universal imagery to get the image of her ideal marriage partnership across to him. This therefore suggests that true love between equals is much more happy and positive with no downsides for either half. Lord Byron writes in When We Two Parted, A shudder comes oer me, why wert thou so dear? He writes these words to suggest his feeling of regret.This is shown by the questioning of what he could have possibly ever seen in her, carrying on to the vow to never have feelings for her if they were to ever meet again. Byrons imagery of cold in pale grew thy cheek and cold, colder thy kiss is suggesting a loss of passion by the lack of life in coldness comparing it to the lack of intimacy he has, for example thy kiss. John Clare also uses imagery to suggest coldness as a loss of passion by stating Are flowers the winters choice? Is loves bed always snow? Flowers do not grow in winter, so it is again, lifeless, hence loves bed of snow.First Love has a regular rhyme st ructure which reflects the purity of the emotion from the simplicity of the poem. How do I Love Thee takes the form of a sonnet, this is appropriate as the poem is like a monologue as she seems to answer a question so a flowing speech suits the 14 line poem. Browning makes use of repetition with the t and the th sound. The phrases which are repeated are used to emphasise the meaning o the poem. Browning makes use of repetition with my heart, that is like a hypnotic chant drawing us in. The effect of having no rhyme scheme in A Woman to Her Lover is that the poem can be taken much more seriously to match the heavy tone.The final stanza of A Woman to Her Lover is longer than the previous three because the first three are her refusing to be what he wants her to be whereas the last stanza is how the relationship can be equal and what she would consider to be in a married life. The short lines in When We Two Parted are to add to the effect of the cold, bitter mood. He achieves cohesion i n the poem by returning to the opening stanza in the final lines of the last thus creating a join to make it a united whole.Love is presented differently in each of the poems by the poets. In First Love love has been presented through the physical and emotional effects by John Clare. In How Do I Love Thee, Elizabeth Barrett Browning presents love by trying to express the depth; she has changed abstract nouns into proper nouns to prove their importance. Christina Rossetti presents love by sharing the positive and uplifting sensations of love and celebrating the joy it brings; she uses imagery of nature and summer as well as a comparison to one of the happiest times of life, a birthday. In A Woman to Her Lover, Walsh presents love through the conditions she expects the man to agree with if he was to become her husband. And finally, Lord Byron presents love in this poem as something he has lost.His shame and his grief are also very strong in description. Of all the poems, my favourite is A Birthday by Christina Rossetti. This is because it is a celebration of love rather than the after effects of a broken heart. It also has a light, cheery attitude whereas the other poems are slightly disheartening. Overall the poems are about love and loss. The innermost feelings and emotions of love between two people are discovered and expressed in detail. Both negative and positive emotions are explored and the effects it has on both people are portrayed.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Wal-Mart analysis - Research Paper Example The paper describes the Wal-Mart company in general. This company is also the largest grocery retailer in United States and deals with diverse ranges of product lines. Wal-Mart mainly operates in 17 different countries. It is identified that both US and UK follow a free market approach that does not impose any regulation on business expansion. According to this concept, the government has only a distant role in market regulation. In contrast, China has adopted a more restrictive approach so as to preserve the interests of its traditional traders. Although, China possesses worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest potential market, the strict market regulations adversely affect Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s business interests. As compared to Chinese market, Indian market covers the features of both capitalism and a socialistic market economy. This mixed market system provides equal power to industrialists and government over the market. Like in the case of US and UK, Japan maintains a free market system so as to en courage national as well as international traders. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s industrialized economy is the third largest in the world. According to Daniels, Radebaugh, Sullivan, and Salwan, different nations follow different market systems and regulations. This varied market structures raise many challenges to Wal-Mart Stores because the organization is forced to restructure its marketing policies in accordance with the trade laws of the nations in which it operates. The sources of political risk for the countries in which the Wal-Mart has its presence vary. For instance, the organization operates in Pakistan where political conflicts and terrorism are at its peak. Such a political atmosphere is not beneficial for a multinational company like Wal-Mart because the political instability would seriously impinge on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing operations. Similarly, China is a communist country that strongly opposes capitalistic ideologies. Under this situation, the Wal-Mart cannot function effecti vely in China since the communist perceptions of Chinese government does not fit with the capitalistic interests of the organization. In this way, the Wal-Mart may face different political threats from its various foreign markets. Therefore, it is recommendable for the company to select foreign market segments carefully while dealing with international expansion. The above said political constraints prevent the organization from developing its product lines and business strategies in the target country. 4. Many groups of individuals possess shares in Wal-Mart and these stakeholders can be mainly categorized under two heads such as market and non-market stakeholders. A market stakeholder has an economic stake in what the company does; whereas a non-market stakeholder possesses a political stake. It is obvious that market stakeholders always aim at their economic benefits. Since both these groups contribute to the operational requirements of the company, Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders must get benefits that are adequate to cover the risk elements they have taken. In the view of Brigham and Ehrhardt (2011, p.572), since investment opportunities and earnings of an international company vary from year to year, it will have to make great efforts to maintain stable dividend distribution. Hence, the shareholder satisfaction is a
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
How photosynthesis and respiration are linked And how do they to provide you with energy from the food you eat - Essay Example During photosynthesis, sunlight causes the water and carbon dioxide to be changed into oxygen and sugar (glucose) (Audesirk, Audesirk, and Byers, 2008).The process starts with absorption of light energy byÃ proteinsÃ (known as photosynthetic reaction centers),Ã which have chlorophylls. A part of light energy collected by chlorophylls is stored asÃ adenosine triphosphateÃ (ATP), while rest of the energy is used for breakingÃ electronsÃ present in water molecules, obtained by plants from soil. These electrons then take part in reactions that change CO2 obtained from the atmosphere into organic compounds. The chemical equation that represents photosynthesis is as follows: Sunlight + chlorophyll 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water) C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen) Respiration is a catabolic process, where organic compounds are broken down and energy is released. In this process oxygen and glucose (produced by photosynthesis) are used to make carbon dioxide and water, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released as chemical energy, (released from molecular glucose) which is completely broken down by aerobic respiration. When ATP is broken down by human body cells to form adenosine di-phosphate or ADP, energy is released along with a phosphate group. Thus, ATP is the source of energy for all human body cells, and this energy is used for maintaining all body functions. The equation showing the process respiration is as follows: C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen) 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water) +36 ATP Therefore, respiration and photosynthesis are complementary reactions. Respiration needs glucose and oxygen produced by photosynthesis, while photosynthesis needs carbon dioxide and water that are products of respiration, and both processes combine to produce energy. 2. What is fermentation? Some organisms and cells use glycolysis (known as fermentation) to produce chemical energy from glucose created during photosynthesis (where energy is derived from sunlight), even without the presence of oxygen. Fermentation starts with breaking down of a glucose molecule, and the entire set of reactions is termed as glycolysis (Alcamo, 2003).Ã Glycolysis involves ten chemical reactions (fig 2), controlled by various enzymes, and energy is released as two ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose that is divided into half, and the entire process takes place in absence of oxygen. Alcoholic fermentation is seen in yeast, which results in alcohol and CO2. On the other hand, in human bodies (in muscle cells) lactose fermentation takes place, which produces lactic acid causing pH levels to turn acidic. Under such circumstances, an individual starts experiencing muscle cramps and tiredness (Alcamo, 2003).Ã The process of fermentation is represented pictorially as follows: Fig 2: The process of Glycolysis and fermentation (Yim and Glover, Ã¢â¬Å"The Biochemical process,Ã¢â¬ 2003). 3. Enzymes Biological catalysts also known as enzymes h elp in carrying out various chemical reactions, taking place within living cells. Enzymes are large protein molecules, containing hundreds of amino acids. Often there is also a non-protein group (a vitamin co-enzyme or a metal cofactor), which is required during catalysis for decreasing the activation energy (Bisswanger, 2008). When an enzyme-catalysis takes place, the substrate joins
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Several language techniques Essay From the perspective of soldiers we experience what men suffered during World War I. Through the vivid imagery and the dramatic language in the poems Attack and Exposure, Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen share their views on war. That all war is- is fear, misery and death. Sasson descibes a battlefield where men are on the attack. They follow behind a tank, fighting their way up a scarred slope, clambering over barbed wire, right into the hands of death. The use of alliteration and rhythym (eg. Smouldering through spouts of drifting smoke that shroud) conveys the sense of urgency and excitement. Personification plays a major role in Attack, eg. glowring and barrage roars gives the poem a tone of anger/rage. The use of onomatapoiea helps the readers experience what the battlefield was like for the soldiers. Lines such as bristling fire, makes the readers imagine the sound of machine guns firing and Tanks creep and topple forward to the wire, creates a powerful image of tanks slowly making their way upto the barbed wire. His climax is a perfect example of the kind of emotive sentences he uses, O Jesus, make it stop! fills the readers with the despair, anger, fear and helplessness that the soldiers feel. Yet, Sassoon also gives the poem an unemotional tone (eg. They leave their trenches, going over top.) to emphasize the fact that the fear, panic and death happened everyday. But none of these things were what war was conveyed to the people not involved with the fighting as back then. Men who went off to war thought that it was a way to prove their masculinity and that to die for your country was a glorious thing. None of these men knew of the fear that would strike their hearts, or of the desperate, panicked need to return home- alive. None of these men knew that it was not just bullets and bombs that killed, that the horrible conditions were just as much their foe as the men who fired at them. Owen describes a cold uneventful night on the battlefield. The use of personification (eg. Iced east winds that knive) immediately conveys the sense of an icy wind that bites like a knife would nick the skin. He uses rhetorical questions well, lines such as What are we doing here? and IsÃ it that were dying? pulls the readers into the tangled web of fear, regret and weariness that surrounds the mind of a soldier. Although onomatopoiea is not used much in Exposure, the sentences that do contain onomatapoiea words are very effective (eg. whisper, curious, nervous) gives the voices in the readers mind a whispery hush. The use of similes (eg. Line twitching agones of men among its brambles) and emotive words such as cringe and poignant helps the readers understand what the soldiers were experiencing. But nothing happens. was a very effective ironic sentence, because althought nothing officially happened, men still died and had to be carried away to be buried. This sentence was repeated to emphasize this fact. These poems along with many others that were written about World War I, helped the people who werent involved with the fighting understand what war was life for the soldiers and that all war caused was fear, misery and death.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Honey And Mumford Learning Style It is commonly believed that most people have a preference with regards to interacting with, taking in and processing information to allow them to learn (Smith, 2003). Different people adopt different learning styles where an optimum style allows the individual to learn best. The concept of individualised learning styles has gained a great deal of popularity in recent years ever since the idea was proposed in the 1970s. To date, there has been a massive abundance of tests that can be performed to assess a persons learning style (Sprenger, 2003). The project is divided into two parts: Part A: To identify and analyze my learning style preferences through various questionnaires; the VARK test, Honey and Mumford learning style, Myer Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Belbins team inventory. Prem and Phil stated that Learning affects performance because all performance can be improved through learning. (Prem Phil, 2008). Thus, this allows me to gain an understanding of who I am as a learner and how this knowledge may affect my performances, both individually or within a team environment. Part B: To discuss my personality type and how my learning style may affect my career choices. However, it is worth noting that although personality is a possible contributor to learning, it is difficult to define (Davies, 2008). Sigmund Freud used the analogy of an iceberg to explain the complexity of human personality by suggesting that most of the personality is hidden out of sight under water (Freud, 2003). Hence, identifying ones personality is not an easy task, and tests should only be used as a starting point rather than as a means to make definite judgements (Bayne, 1997). Nonetheless, my results will give a general idea of a career field that most closely match my personality and strengths. Part 1: Who I am as a learner? 1.1 VARK Test The VARK test is one of the most commonly used models to help identify an individuals preference for receiving and analysing information with regards to learning. It can help people to develop additional learning strategies. There are four modes for people to use, such as visual, aural, read/write and kinaesthetic (VARK, 2009). It is a framework to assess a persons learning style. The results of the VARK test (Appendix A) suggest that my strengths in a learning context rest on my aural skills. I have a strong preference for aural based learning since I like to listen to others during discussion to gain a different perspective which allows me to understand more of the topic being discussed. My group mate agrees with this by saying Although Yin Sung is normally quiet during group activities, she is an active listener of other peoples views and cares about other peoples thoughts, (Vicky, 2010). Another part of the test results that I particularly agree with is that my written/reading skills quite weak and isnt my preferred method of learning. Having only recently moved to study in the UK, English is not my first language which could explain why this type of learning is not one of my main strengths, although my proficiency is improving a lot. Since, the western educational system places a lot of emphasis on reading and writing, I believe that I will gain a lot of improvement in this learning aspect as time goes on with added practice. However, I am a bit surprised by my low score on my kinesthetic skills. I have always thought that I am someone that learns well when given the opportunity to experience something via a hands on approach. For example, I find that I am able to pick up new skills easily (i.e. badminton) when I am able to physically try it out rather than just reading from a book on how to play. 1.2 Honey and Mumford Learning Style The Honey and Mumfords (1992) Learning Style identifies and categorises an individuals learning style. There are four possible styles; an activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist, with a total of eighty questions in the test (Honey and Mumford, 1992). According to the results of the Honey and Mumford learning style questionnaire (Appendix B) I adopt a high reflector mentality. I agree with the majority of the description of the reflector which I believe fully describes me. A Reflector is a careful person who prefers to take a back seat in group discussions (Honey and Mumford, 1992). I like to listen to other peoples views before I come to conclusions and take my time before making any decisions. Being less assertive and tending to hold back from participation, I believe that I will work well and learn more efficiently if placed around an activist, as one would be able to encourage me to tackle situations via a more head on approach. This would enhance my participation in group activities and discussions. In agreement with my VARK results, the Honey and Mumford test suggests that I am a good listener which is one of the strengths of a reflector. I fully agree with this since I have always been someone that likes to listen to everyone in the group thoughtfully. This gives me an opportunity to gain different perspectives from different angles before I come to conclusions. However, a possible weakness that I see in myself by being a reflector is that I spend a long time when performing set tasks. For example, during my last assignment, it took me in excess of two months to complete it as I was dwelling too much on the preparation stage. I spent too long researching information before I finally began writing my assignment which is due to my cautiousness with regards to deciding how to write it. Although I do show a cautious mentality, I dont fully agree with the description that a person with reflector behaviour never likes to take risks. I occasionally like to step out of my comfort zone to experience things that I have never experienced before to broaden my own knowledge. For example, I chose to leave my home and familiar surroundings in Hong Kong to study in the UK. I also like to take up activities and hobbies that I have never tried before. 1.3 Myers Briggs Type Indicator The Myer Briggs type Indicator (MBTI) is a questionnaire used to identify an individuals personality type based on Carl Jung theories. MBTI categorises individuals into two functions, such as extraversion or introversion which is the preference in which an individual prefers to direct their energy (Madeline Rebecca, 1988). For example, one that likes to direct their energy to deal with outer things, situations or other people is deemed to have a preference for extraversion. Conversely, a person that likes to deal with ideas, information, explanations or the inner world, then their preference is introversion. The results of the MBTI (Appendix C) suggest that I have a dominant introverted function, with a high preference for introverted sensing as demonstrated by my high score in ISFJ. These results show that I like to listen to others and to absorb as much information as possible in a particular situation, to expand my knowledge and to achieve a clear understanding of a topic. These compliment well with my results from the Honey and Mumford test mentioned above. The results also suggest that I am a hard working individual, which I feel describes me well. I like to start early and ensure that I perform tasks to the best of my ability. Regarding my academic life, I tend to study at least five hours a day. I also begin my research for assignments long before the deadline. For example, although this professional project is due for submission in April 2010, I have been preparing and doing the necessary reading since October 2009. The MBTI results also suggest that I have an important preference for extraverted feeling, as demonstrated by my high ESFJ score. I am someone that likes to focus on building harmony in the world around me and build positive relationships. Also, I always value other peoples contributions during work or other activities. My previous employer said Sung Yin is a very personable individual that is popular with the customers and staff which creates a very positive atmosphere around the place, (Mrs Poon, 2008). I will always try to persuade people to agree with my views if their opinions are different to mine. However, I always need to be careful not to offend those around me while trying to do so. Briggs Myers stated that although ESFJs are friendly and sympathetic, they are very persevering and insist that others share the same views as them. (Myers, 1995). 1.4 Belbin Team Inventory The Belbin Team Inventory is a test used to gauge insight into a persons behavioural tendency in a team environment (Furnham, Steele Pendleton, 1993). The test allows us the opportunity to determine not only our individual aptitude strengths, but also gives an awareness of our position within a team and how we are expected to contribute. It scores people based on how strongly they express traits from nine different team roles. (Belbin, 1981). According to my Belbin test results (Appendix D), I have a major preference for a role as a shaper within a team. A shaper contains behavioural traits that correspond to my results from the MBTI. For example, a shaper displays a drive to succeed and to overcome obstacles which complements my desire to fulfil my ambitions and follow my clear goals. Although I display reflector characteristics, I also see myself as a competitive individual that thrives on pressure and challenges, which forms the basis of the shaper role. My high school P.E teacher wrote on my school report Sung Yin has demonstrated her competitive side during badminton class and has the necessary personality and desire to become a good player in the sport in future, (Mr. Yeung, 2001). The results also show that I am a monitor evaluator suggesting that I am an individual that likes to evaluate all options before coming to a conclusion, which allows me to make accurate judgements. This agrees with my Honey and Mumford test results which say that I am one who likes to gain different perspectives in discussion before making decisions (being a reflector). Finally, the test results also consider me to have a preference for a specialist role that displays single mindedness and dedication. These are traits that I agree with since I am a rather stubborn person that doesnt like to change my mind once I have my mind set on something. Mr Robinson, my previous employer said Sung Yin is a very driven person with a clear path with where she wants to be and is unlikely that she will be swayed from it, (Mr. Robinson, 2007). I am always dedicated to my tasks at hand and always give my best to do them as well as I can. This has allowed me to develop my skills and knowledge to a level that means I can give a useful contribution within a team. Despite what I feel is a fairly accurate assessment of my preferential roles within a team, I do not fully agree with a resource investigator being my least preferred role. This is because I believe that I am a communicative person which is a key trait of the resource resource investigator. As demonstrated by previous test results, I am a person that possesses strong aural skills. Despite regularly adopting a cautious approach to group discussion activities (in line with my reflector personality), I like to ask questions and participate in activities once I feel comfortable enough to express my views once I have gauged other peoples viewpoints. Part 2: Implications for career choice 2.1 Lifelong Learning Even from a young age, I have always been aware of the importance of learning new things to broaden my own knowledge base having been constantly reminded by my parents to work hard till old, and to learn till old. With an ever changing society and increasing demand for talent in any professional career, it is mandatory that an individual should not only acquire new skills, but to also constantly upgrade these skills to meet challenges set by the changing work environment. This is the act of life-long learning which is the deliberate progression throughout life of an individual, where our knowledge is constantly being expanded which allows us to effectively survive in society (Peter, Jenny and Shelagh, 1998). The essentiality of life-long learning has been well documented even as early as the 17th century where Comenius wrote that no age is too late to begin learning. And that one should never make the mistake of standing still in terms of skill acquisition (Comenius, 1996). Through m y practical experience and life in general, I have come to the realization that continuous learning is a necessity to maintain a competitive advantage over the many individuals that seek the same career opportunities as me. Hence, I search for any opportunities to improve myself through life-long learning. With my desire to improve, I have recently resigned from my job to study my bachelors degree in Northumbria University. Prior to my resignation and subsequent move to partake in full time studies, I worked three years in the Bank of China as a Customer Service Officer (Appendix E). During that time, I was working full-time, while studying part-time during evenings by attending studying classes. The part-time study has allowed me to develop many key skills to heighten my proficiency in doing my job in minimal time. This is important because of the current unstable and competitive job market. It has now become a requirement for me to identify a clear career path for me to pursue and then to develop my knowledge towards the relevant areas to fulfil the needs of my future employers. I am now studying an International Business Management degree course with the aspiration to achieve a future career in the business sector. Life-long learning will help me provide a solid base for the development of essential transferable skills (as discussed later) that would stick to me throughout life and to aid me in the progression towards my career goals. It is also important for making me a better person. After all it is the bottom rung of the ladder of personal development. (Peter, Jenny and Shelagh, 1998). 2.2 Career Choice Having conducted various learning style tests on myself, I have been able to gain a better understanding of my learning preferences, personality and environments where I am likely to thrive upon. It is expected that knowing an individuals learning style preference may help that person to delineate a possible career path that is best suited for them, or even influence that person towards certain career choices. Indeed, it is common for managers to use questionnaires to identify ideal personality traits in their candidates that would most likely be suitable for their jobs which would aid them in the selection process. However, it is worth noting that human behaviour is highly complex, and such tests may not necessarily give an accurate or thorough assessment of an individuals personality (Freud, 2001). Hence, results of these tests should not be held absolute and should only be used as a guideline to aid a person with regards to making key decisions such as possible career paths to tak e. Despite obvious drawbacks with using these tests, I agree with most of the suggestions made by them regarding my learning preferences and some aspects of my personality. In terms of employment, through my practical experiences, I have developed a strong desire to pursue a career in Marketing. The skills I have acquired to date have largely influenced my interest towards this career path which, together with my personality, has made me consider that I possess the raw foundations to succeed in the marketing sector. In a survey carried out by Honey and Mumford, it was found that the majority of managers preferred employees that are reflectors for Marketing jobs; a trait that they believe would bring the biggest success to their company. Having carried out a Honey and Mumford test on myself, it was concluded that I am a strong reflector, which makes me aptly suitable for Marketing. Reflectors such as myself likes to adopt a cautious approach during group activities. This means that I tend to take an initial back seat in group discussions, preferring to obtain different viewpoints before making key decisions. Being cautious, can also involve thinking ahead in anticipation of possible obstacles. With marketing jobs, it is important not to rush into decisions without first thinking and planning ahead. This is because, with the nature of the type of work, it is inevitable that there will be lean periods so hence, it is especially wise to be prepared for such periods and to have a plan to act accordingly. For example, a part of planning ahead is anticipation of changes in the markets and finding new products to promote. It is important to be aware that the best marketing entrepreneurs are always looking for the next big money marker. They are always planning ahead (Scott Brooks, 2004). Hence, having a cautious approach to things can be a good trait as it means that I am less likely to make wrong decisions due to rushing into things and take necessary precautions. My Belbin results that conclude that I have a strong preference towards a Monitor evaluator who likes to evaluate all options before coming to conclusions adds further support of my suitability for a Marketing career. The ability to remain calm is one of the most sought after personality traits in the Retail profession, (John, 2007). Pressure can come in different ways, for example, when dealing with unhappy customers who are dissatisfied with the products sold to the; It is the job of the marketer to deal with the problem and to restore the customers opinion of the company. Hence, to achieve this, it is essential to remain calm under pressure when dealing with these situations. With marketing jobs, it is also important to be able to respond well and appropriately to strict targets and deadlines that are set and to work towards them, which can also lead to pressure building up. My Belbin test results suggest that I am suited towards a shaper role which is another reason why I feel that a Marketing career is suitable for me. Shapers are adept at performing under pressurising situations and with the added drive to succeed. This is important since there is a lot of competition within the market. Only when you have your client on your side, are you able to effectively get what you want. (John, 2007). I believe this quote highlights what a career in Marketing is essentially all about. Success within the field of Marketing and Retail is highly dependent on your clients or customers which means that good people skills allowing you to connect effectively with both colleagues and customers is essential. On a personality level, it is advantageous to be a likeable person which can involve being a pleasant individual with a cheery disposition. You are more likely to be able to negotiate better if your client likes you, (Scott Brooks, 2004). My MBTI results have described me as having a strong preference towards extroverted feeling which means that I like to build positive relationships with people around me and to create harmony around me. This, in my opinion has contributed largely to me being a personable individual. The benefits of this personality trait are two-fold. Firstly, I w ould be able to sell my products to customers more easily since they are likely to find me a pleasant person. Secondly, I am more likely to be on the right side of my work colleagues and so they may be more likely to offer me their help. Having identified a career field that best suit my personality as based on my personality tests, I seek to achieve a future career as a Marketing manager. A job of this kind would allow me the responsibility to make key decisions that will influence the success of the company. I crave the opportunity to manage a team, and to give a major contribution to the company that I work for. A successful career as a Marketing manager demands certain personality traits in addition to those mentioned above. For example, it is important that a Marketing Manager (Appendix F) is one that, not only is able to make accurate judgement, but also needs to stand by these judgements and not be too easily influenced by other peoples words. In other words, they need to be prepared to ignore naysayers, even if its those that are closest to them. (Scott Brooks, 2004). Hence, being brave and also single minded can be seen as a requirement in this sense. The Belbin test results have identified me as being a specialist where the key characteristic of this role is single mindedness. With me being a naturally stubborn person who doesnt usually change my mind having made my decisions, I believe I am suitable for this particular career choice. 2.3 Transferable skills In addition to the right personality and job specific skills, a wise employer will also look to see what transferable skills a perspective employee can offer. The term transferable skills simply refers to a set of generic skills in which an individual needs in order to be effective members of a flexible, adaptable and competitive work force and for life-long learning. At the heart of it all, most employers are looking for people with common skills and characteristics. (Phil OReilly, 2009). Unlike job specific skills, transferable skills can be used in many ways, gained through past experiences. They are skills that can be used in a variety of jobs and situations. In order to be successful in Marketing, there is a repertoire of skills that are required for me to effectively do my job which include time management, people skills, leadership, teamwork and good organisational skills, amongst others. Marketing jobs rely on the ability to sell products through interaction with a variety of different customers. Hence, good communication skills are essential. As identified by my VARK test results, I have strong aural skills that would be especially useful in Marketing since the job demands that I have a good understanding of customers needs. Being a good listener, and also someone that likes to see things from different perspectives, this would allow me to communicate effectively with my clients. My ability to communicate well has been greatly developed through my past employment as a Customer Service Representative at the Bank of China and private tutor, teaching Maths and various languages to children. Therefore, good communication now represents one of my key strengths. I am tri-lingual giving me versatility in my communication skills allowing me to talk with a wider customer range. Good presentation skills is also an important aspect of communication skill that is required in my future career since it is likely that It would be needed when promoting new products for instance. Fortunately, my presentational skills have been greatly enhanced over time through past experience in giving presentations during my past employment and current studies. Having a good understanding of the products that I am promoting and any new products on the market is also very important in Marketing. Hence, it is necessary to have good research skills and also to have an open mind with regards to learning new material. Being a reflector means that I happy to absorb information from many different angles and use it to make my decisions, while being a specialist as identified by my Belbin test results suggests that I have a natural eagerness to learn and expand my knowledge in topics at hand. As I am likely to be working within a team in my workforce with similar targets, there is no doubt that good teamwork skills are a requirement. I believe that I possess good teamwork capabilities having already been in employment where good teamwork is a must, such as working with my colleagues in the promotion and deriving of comprehensive financial plans during my previous job. I also actively partake in various teamwork sports that have allowed me to effectively build on my teamwork skills. It is my target to achieve a career as a Marketing manager in future, which will demand additional skills in order to be successful such as leadership and ability to motivate myself and others within my team. Being a Marketing manager will mean that I will receive greater responsibility, managing a team or making key decisions that will affect company success. Although I believe that I possess an ideal personality to undertake such a role in a company, I feel that I will need to improve myself further before I am ready. With regards to transferable skills, I believe my biggest weakness lies in my leadership qualities, being a less assertive individual that likes to hold back from participation in group activities. I understand that if I am to be a good leader, I will need to improve this aspect by playing a more prominent role in group activities and essentially stamping my authority. I do not fully agree with the notion that leadership is a quality that cant be taught, and some peop le are just born leaders. I feel that leadership is a skill that can be improved through life-long learning and experience; hence I will thrive to improve myself in this respect. As with all skills, they need to be learnt and no-one is born with them. (Phil OReilly, 2009). Conclusion Life-long learning is an essential process for me to learn new skills and also to improve existing ones. It is also highly important for my personal development towards being a better person, and one that is able to adapt to an ever changing world. The constant acquirement of new transferable skills is also vital for career progression and to give myself a competitive advantage over those thriving for the same opportunities as myself. By using a variety of different tests, I have gained an appreciation of my own personality, learning preferences and strengths. This information, together with my interests makes me ideally suited for a future career in the Marketing field.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
As the names state, study abroad and study locally are marked by lots of differences between them. When a student wants to study abroad, he needs student visa or permission whereas study locally in local universities doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need one. When a student wants to apply for study abroad, he may have to clear some tests require proving his eligibility to study abroad. Studying abroad can be very expensive as a student has to shell out visa fee, application fee, flight charges, hostel fee and tuition fee. The fee per semester also burns a hole in the pocket of a student. Study locally does not call for any of such expenditures. One just have to pay the semester fee for the duration of the course opted for. However, it has some limitations attached to it. Most of the courses, people want to opt for, are not offered by local universities. So, students are left with only two choices, either- to choose from the plethora of courses the local university offers or move out to study abroad and study the preferred course. Study abroad increases the weight age of a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s profile. For instance, if you are a student from Japan enrolled to study integrated course of communications and technology with Stanford, given if you pass the course with flying colors, back home it would increase the numbers of job openings and suitable remunerations for you. It is a general observation that most of the students prefer to study abroad for specialization in art and science stream. For instance, medical students prefer to study locally for their basic degrees such as M.B.B.S but when it comes for specialization and advanced medical study, say in oncology or plastic surgery, they prefer to study abroad. It is also advised that if you are looking for basic graduation degrees or elementary courses, study locally. You can save the expenditure to study abroad and get a higher exposure and advanced degree.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In the novel the Stranger by Albert Camus, the protagonist Meursault is characterized as emotionless, uncaring, and indifferent, though he is actually an understanding, insightful man who is pleased with a simple, modest life. His lack of emotion towards the superfluous and superficial, along with his lack of judgment for other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s choices do not make him indifferent; they in fact show how he demonstrates Albert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophy of Absurdism. It is through the characterization of Meursault that the greater theme of Absurdism and the absurdity of life are conveyed. Meursault is often seen as cold and impassive towards others. He is actually characterized in this detached way to personify and embody CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophy, and his rejection of the established and predictable. One day when Meursault is spending the day with Marie, she asks him if he would marry her and he says Ã¢â¬Å"it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make any differenceÃ¢â¬ and that they Ã¢â¬Å"could if she wanted toÃ¢â¬ (41). Most view marriage as an important occasion with many consequences and a lifetime commitment. MeursaultÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to MarieÃ¢â¬â¢s question is honest and straight forward, and his nonchalance serves to weaken the importance of institutionalized principles. Later, Marie wonders to herself if she loves him, and Meursault says that Ã¢â¬Å"there is no way [he] could know thatÃ¢â¬ (42), as it is not possible for Meursault to know what others feel. This implies that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions are determined by the individual, and demonstrates the Absurdist thought that no two people can have the exact same emotions and beliefs, and therefore there can be no shared meaning concerning an emotion. When speaking with his lawyer, Meursault is asked how he felt about his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, and he says that he Ã¢â¬Å"would rather Maman hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t diedÃ¢â¬ (65), which shocks his lawyer. Meursault could be perceived as cold and indifferent for not expressing more emotion towards his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, but he is simply expressing the absurdist belief that one can have many different emotions and that having a mold or standard for a way a person should feel during a specific situation is absurd. Meursault is simply conveying that emotions he felt for his mother such as love are too intangible to define. Camus portrays Meursault as being very non-judgmental and blase towards other characters actions. This is not because Meursault is emotionless or apathetic, but because it conveys CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ belief in personal meaning instead of shared meaning imposed by society. Raymond asks Meursault if Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬â¢d mind writing him a letter right thenÃ¢â¬ ¦ [And he] said noÃ¢â¬ (32), even though the letter would eventually hurt RaymondÃ¢â¬â¢s ex girlfriend. Meursault agrees, not because he is rude or uncaring, but because he is just doing his friend a favor, and because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t judge others based on a standard set of morals. Before Meursault is scheduled to be executed, the Chaplain attempts for the second time to convince Meursault to embrace Christianity like others before him so that he may be saved. Meursault Ã¢â¬Å"acknowledg[es] that that was their rightÃ¢â¬ (117), but does not agree because he is acting in the Absurdist mindset that judging others based on your own principles is wrong. Meursault goes on to try to convince the Chaplain that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s value is not measured by society, for one person could see him as very bad, where as another views him as very good. MeursaultÃ¢â¬â¢s nature and ability to understand that it is up to the individual to build their own beliefs and values demonstrates the Absurdist belief that every person has the right to assign personal meaning to a part of their life, rather than take from the meaning imposed on their life by society. Camus defines Absurdism as Ã¢â¬Å"the confrontation between manÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for significance, meaning and clarity on the one hand Ã¢â¬â and the silent, cold universe on the otherÃ¢â¬ . Meursault, who is capable of embracing the universeÃ¢â¬â¢s silence, especially when facing his own death is what makes him the Absurd hero, and ultimately humanize the Absurd philosophy. Camus uses the character of Meursault to convey the message that it is up to the individual to assign meaning to their life through embracing reality, and to avoid becoming trapped by societal ideals and the Ã¢â¬Å"shared meaningÃ¢â¬ imposed by humanity. One should not allow fear to limit them.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Meaning of Citizenship in A Democratic Nation Ã¢â¬â History Essay Free Online Research Papers The Meaning of Citizenship in A Democratic Nation History Essay The meaning of citizenship depends of course, on what context that it is used in most democratic countries it is associated with civil and not religious or moral rights that advocate the rights of freedom of exchange, belief and choice. It is generally accepted that contemporary citizenship theory started in Britain with TH Marshall in post-WWII. Were Marshall divided citizenship into three sets of citizen rights. Civil rights, which developed in the eighteenth-century which included free speech, access to the legal system, rights to a fair trail, and rights of contract and property. Political rights which included the extension of the vote, the right to hold office were developed in the nineteenth-century, (but only for men). Social rights that were formed in the twentieth-century and are entitlements to social security when faced with unemployment, sickness, and other forms of hardship this is when the welfare state made its appearance (TH Marshall, Citizenship and social class. 1950: 46). It is the role of the welfare state and the social rights of people that we will be more concerned with here. So what was the thinking behind the development of the welfare state, the most obvious answer is that it was intended to provide for a greater level of equality among classes, and a protection for those who were worst hit by the excesses of capitalism. This is however a debatable point. Brian Abel Smith argued that the welfare states Ã¢â¬Å"were never intended as great institutions of equalityÃ¢â¬ and that they Ã¢â¬Å"did not intend to try to create a more equal society, but to establish a floor of protection at the bottomÃ¢â¬ (Brian Abel Smith, The major problems of the welfare state. 1985: 32). In many ways, the concept of a welfare state is the peak of a social democracy, seemingly balancing the benefits of capitalism and socialism without the extremes of either. The theory seems to be almost perfect, with the state playing a large role in the area of social policy, working to alleviate the problems and inequalities created by the capitalist market economy. This seems to be supported by the fact that all the earliest reforms related to social insurance were set up for those who were injured in the workplace. It would appear that the rationale behind the welfare states varies depending on which political ideology that one subscribes to. For conservatives, the welfare state was a way of avoiding unrest among the poorer classes and a means of maintaining political stability. Liberals believed that it was simply a means of solving the problems of an unequal and illiberal society, and of the victims of that society. While socialists believed that it was merely a step in the right direction towards the ultimate goal of a classless society (David Held, Models of democracy. 1996: 235-236). Apart from the political ideologies the welfare state can be seen as a result of the merging of the new capitalist system and the new mass democracies in which citizens were politically active. In essence it was an attempt to compromise the beliefs of the ca pitalist ruling class with the rest of society (Flora Heidenheimer, The historical core and changing boundaries of the welfare state. 1981: 22). This was the reality of the welfare state, an institution which tried to resolve the conflicts within the class-based society. The first stage came in the 1920s, which was a period of social experimentation (Hecio, Towards a new welfare state. 1981: 386-387). It was during this period that the institutions of the welfare state were created. Social insurance was instituted, and advances in the fields of health and education provisions were made. The second stage was one of consolidation between the 1930s and 1940s. This stage was the inevitable follow-on from the period of experimentation. Many of the ideas which had been put forward in the first period were revolutionary and challenged the relationship between the state and its citizenry. While the second period allowed for a consolidation of the achievements that had been made, it was also a time in which the seeds were sown for the huge expansion in social rights that were to come. In the immediate post-WWII period, Britain was in the process of constructing its social welfare system. Marshall was attempting to justify the national provision of social benefits. He focused on the major contradiction between formal political equality and individual freedom, on the one hand, and the significant social and economic inequality on the other (Bryan Turner, Outline of a theory of citizenship. 1992: 48-51). This paved the way for the future expansion of the welfare state. This expansion came in the years between the 1950s and the mid-1970s. After World War II, the amount government spending that was spent on social policy soared. There were a number of reasons for this firstly, there was an increase in the number of dependants within society, a rise in the number of the elderly, which increased the cost of maintaining health care and pensions. The other major reason was that this period was one of unprecedented economic growth and thus finding the funds to pay for thes e services was possible. However by the late 1970s the welfare state had come under severe pressure and its very existence was in question. How did this come about only a few years after its halcyon days? Basically, the expansion of the welfare state was too much too soon. Were the expansion of social rights that existed during a period of economic prosperity simply could not be maintained in a time of recession. With a fall in economic growth and a rise in unemployment increased pressure was put on the welfare state. The funds that were there during the good times dried up and states started to question the costs involved. There was a genuine feeling that the investment in the future security of society, on which the welfare state was founded, was seriously threatening its economic security (Hecio, 1981: 400). As the level of government indebtedness rose, people began to resent paying out for services that were formally their entitlements and the sense of solidarity and consensus of the post-war period bega n to wither. Indeed there are now some grave concerns over the future of the welfare state. Dismayed at the very high levels of persistent unemployment, and constrained by the monetary policies of the EU, many policymakers are thinking that a developed, welfare state is no longer possible within a global economy (David Held, 1996: 251). Hecio lists three main reasons for the decline in the welfare state and its impact on the social rights of citizens: pointing to high costs, ineffective spending and the over-regulation of the welfare system (Hecio, 1981: 399-400). The social rights that most people enjoyed and have come to depend on in times of prosperity do not hold up in times of hardship. It goes without saying that it is the most vulnerable of people in society that are worst affected when the social safety net is removed. Given the growth of social exclusion it is not surprising that many writers on social citizenship are concerned about the deindustrialisation, and the spreading of inequalities. Increasingly, conservatives as well as moderates are emphasising the obligations of people, and not their rights or entitlements. Dahrendrof, believed that citizenship is a body of rights and duties a status that defines full membership of a society; that by very its definition is removed from the whims of the market. Although there are obligations that all citizen should and must obey such as the law, taxes, etc, but these obligations have be limited so as not to infringe on either personal or civil rights. Dahrendorf argued that the most tangible evidence concerning the loss of citizen entitlements can be seen in the development of an underclass in the wealthy OECD states (Ralf Dahrendorf, The changing quality of citizenship 1994: 10-19). These groups are the long-term unemployed, the persistent poor, disa dvantaged and ethnic groups and refugees that have fallen through the safety net. Another failing of the state is that the welfare state has done little to make Europe a classless society. Indeed, instead of abolishing inequalities it has perpetuated them: the extension of many benefits and payments to large sectors of the middle class during the expansionary period did little to improve the relative life chances of the working class. On the charge that the welfare state is over-regulated, we need only look at the size of the bureaucracies established to run the system for its verification. These organisations have become detached from the people whose needs they are supposed to represent. A Ã¢â¬Å"them and usÃ¢â¬ mentality has developed with the welfare state being seen as faceless, and the recipients being seen as charity cases. As Turner noted, citizenship, despite the claim of universality excludes as well as incorporates. Social citizenship requires equality but is incompatible with individualism since equality requires a bureaucracy and in turn that bureaucracy destroys individualism (Bryan Turner, Citizenship and social theory. 1994: 24-29). Taken together, the failings of the system represent near fatal flaws and explain the decline of the welfare state and its effect on the rights of citizenship. A number of theorists have focused on a more expansive definition of citizenship. In part, its emphasis is due to the various developments of capitalism. Prior theories assumed that developing capitalism necessarily corresponded with modernisation, which argue that economic rights are part of the larger struggle for citizenship. This assumption can no longer be considered to be completely true, as capitalism can flourish under traditional societies and settings (Turner, 1992: 24). Furthermore, in post-industrial societies, there is deindustrialisation, deskilling, and continued inequality and poverty. Finally, there are some counter-trends of growing nationalism and ethnic conflict, on the one hand, and globalisation on the other. In response to these mixed trends, writers on citizenship take different ideological viewpoints, ranging from basic human rights, as in what people have rights to, because of what they share in common as human beings. To human identities that are deeply imbedded in community, to common agency, rights, understandings and shared purposes (Martin Bulmer, Anthony Rees, Citizenship Today. 1996: 79-83). Turner defines citizenship in a sociological context as a set of practices: juridical, political, economic and cultural that define a person as a competent member of a society and which as a consequence shape the flow of resources to people and social groups. The emphasis here is very much on practices. Indeed, citizenship changes historically as a consequence of political struggles for better access to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s chances. Thus defined, citizenship is centrally concerned with inequality, power, and social class; it is inevitably bound up with the problem of the unequal distribution of resources. Therefore, citizenship is essentially concerned about the nature of social membership within modern political collectives, in short, social movements. Turner focuses on the spaces within capitalist economies for the growth of social movements seeking citizenship rights. There is considerable variation in contemporary capitalism, thus, the real changes in capitalism will come through the democratic process. Gradual changes in consumption, welfare, will come more as a consequence of collective resistance and pressure to improve conditions and expand the civil rights of minorities (Turner, 1992: 44). He argues that welfare rights are more than merely a pacifier for class differences rather they have fundamentally transformed the nature of the class struggle itself. The condition of the working class has improved immensely over the last century, despite the persistent of inequalities. There is the emergence of new classes and the ambiguous location of the middle classes, the changing nature of class consciousness and class imagery. Turner sees multiple social movements, minorities, feminists, and the aged. Although Turner believed that class was important, he believed that it was not the complete story (Turner, Citizenship and capitalism. 1986: 105). Conclusion Hugh Hecio believed that a transformation is taking place with the idea of social inclusiveness. Despite gaps and inconsistencies, the prevailing ideology during the twentieth-century was to expand the circle of people who were considered to be equal in terms of life goals and aspirations. Marshalls concept of social citizenship was not only to reduce poverty but to make society more equal and just. It was an expression of solidarity a sense of citizenship. The concept of social solidarity, the recognition of individual dignity, expressed a defining aspiration a presumption of inclusion that was a remarkable and unique development. In contrast to earlier generations that routinely accepted and defended exclusionary practices, in the post-WWII, the moral sense had changed. To be sure, there were gaps and inconsistencies in the ideal, but they were not endorsed. The overall goal of the post-WWII social welfare state was the economic security of the family. The nation state was the appropriate political organization to achieve these goals. Those assumptions are now being questioned, as a normal working life is no longer assured, especially for the most vulnerable in society. Nations are no longer in control of their economies. Global economic forces and cross border migrations are threatening state welfare programs. Instead of the protection and reconciliation of individual diversity in the common community, there is the reassertion of local political and economic interests, and ethnic and racial identities. The concept of inclusion is increasingly contested. As the economies of both the US and Western Europe continue to produce growing inequalities, increased social divisions, and continues to threatening universal citizen rights. Bibliography Abel Smith, Brian (1985) The major problems of the welfare state: defining the issues. In Eisenstadt Ahimer [eds] The welfare state and its aftermath. London: Croom Helm. Bulmer, Martin Anthony Rees (1996) Citizenship Today: The Contemporary Relevance of TH Marshall. London: UCL Press. Dahrendorf, Ralf (1994) The changing quality of citizenship. In van Steenbergen, Bart [ed] (1994) The condition of citizenship. London: Sage. Flora, P AJ Heidenheimer (1981) The historical core and changing boundaries of the welfare state. In P Flora AJ Heidenheimer [eds] The development of the welfare state in Europe. London: McCroom Helm. Hecio, H (1981) Towards a new welfare state. In Flora Heidenheimer [ed] The development of the welfare state in Europe. London: McCroom Helm. Held, David (1996) Models of democracy. Cambridge, Polity Press. Marshall, Thomas (1950) Citizenship and social class. Cambridge: Pluto Press. Turner, Bryan (1986) Citizenship and capitalism: the debate over reformism. London: Allen and Unwin. Turner, Bryan (1992) Outline of a theory of citizenship. In Mouffe, Chantal [ed] (1992) Dimensions of radical democracy: pluralism, citizenship, community. London: Verso. Turner, Bryan [ed] (1994) Citizenship and social theory. London: Sage. Research Papers on The Meaning of Citizenship in A Democratic Nation - History EssayBringing Democracy to AfricaPETSTEL analysis of India19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeQuebec and CanadaRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andTwilight of the UAWBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Ancient Remains Ã¢â¬â Fossil DNA of Former Life News that scientists had recovered actual marrow from a dinosaur fossil aroused much amazement. But the achievement is not a surprise. In fact, it doesnt even set a new record for the oldest pieces of life. Most of us think of fossils as dead things that have been petrified, turned to stone. But that doesnt have to be. The actual bodies of once-living things can escape being petrified for a very long time under the right conditions. A fossil is defined as any evidence of life from the prehistoric or geologic past that is preserved in the Earths crust. A prejudice against preservation may have kept scientists from looking for meat in the ancient bones, but now we know better, and a race is on to find ever-older tissues. Creatures in Ice Ãâ"tzi, the 5,000-year-old ice man found in an Alpine glacier in 1991, is the best-known example of a frozen fossil. Mammoths and other extinct polar animals are also known from permafrost. These fossils are not as pretty as the food in your freezer, as they undergo a kind of slow mummification in the frozen condition. Its a geologic version of freezer burn in which ice migrates out of the tissues into the surroundings. Frozen bison bones nearly 60,000 years old were analyzed in 2002, yielding DNA fragments and bone proteins that could be compared to existing species. Mammoth hair turns out to be even better than bones for preserving DNA. But Antarctica holds the record in this field, with microbes in deep ice that are 8 million years old. Dried Remains The desert preserves dead matter by desiccation. Ancient humans have been naturally mummified this way, such as the 9,000-year-old Nevadan known as Spirit Cave Man. Older material is preserved by various desert packrats, which have the habit of making piles of plant matter cemented into rock-hard bricks by their viscous urine. When preserved in dry caves, these packrat middens can last tens of thousands of years. The beauty of packrat middens is that they can yield deep environmental data about the American West during the late Pleistocene: vegetation, climate, even the cosmic radiation of the times. Similar middens are being studied in other parts of the world. Even the remains of extinct creatures still exist in dried form. Mammoths are most famous for their permafrost carcasses, but mammoth dung is known from desiccated specimens. Amber Of course Jurassic Park put amber in the public consciousness with its plot based on the idea of retrieving dinosaur DNA from blood-sucking insects trapped in amber. But progress toward that movies scenario is slow and possibly stopped. Lots of different creatures are documented from amber, from frogs and insects to bits of plants. But the published DNA retrievals have not yet been duplicated. Perfect Fossils In a few places plant matter has been preserved in sediment for many millions of years. The Clarkia beds of northern Idaho are between 15 and 20 million years old, putting their origin in the Miocene Epoch. Tree leaves can be split from these rocks still displaying their seasonal colors, green or red. Biochemicals including lignins, flavonoids,Ã and aliphatic polymers can be extracted from these fossils, and DNA fragments are known from fossil liquidambar, magnolias and tulip trees (Liriodendron). The current champions in this field are the Eocene dawn-redwood forests of Axel Heiberg Island, in the Canadian Arctic. For about 50 million years the stumps, logs, and foliage of these trees have been preserved almost totally unmineralized, thanks to swift burial in conditions that kept oxygen out. Today this fossil wood lies on the ground, ready to pick up and burn. Tourists and coal miners alike threaten this scientific treasure. Dinosaur Marrow Mary Schweitzer, the North Carolina State University professor who documented soft tissuesÃ in Tyrannosaurus rex leg bones, has been exploring biomolecules in ancient fossils for several years. The presence of those in the 68-million-year-old bones was not the oldest of her finds, but actual tissues of this age are unprecedented. The discovery challenges our notions of how fossils form. Surely more examples will be found, perhaps in existing museum specimens. Salt Microbes A startling Nature paper in 2000 reported the revival of bacterial spores from a brine pocket in a salt crystal in a Permian salt bed in New Mexico, some 250 million years old. Naturally, the claim brought criticism: the laboratory or the salt bed was contaminated, and in any case, the DNA of the microbes (the genus Virgibacillus) was too close a match to more recent species. But the discoverers have defended their technique and raised other Ã¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹scenariosÃ for the DNA evidence. And in the April 2005 Geology they published evidence from the salt itself, showing that it (1) matches what we know of Permian seawater and (2) appears to date from the time of the salts formation, not a later event. For now, this bacillus holds the title of Earths oldest living fossil.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Ayn Rands Approach - Essay Example In the first case the argument was presented that there exist some privileged starting points for knowledge which effectively translates to arguments being meaningless if they are not connected along the 'correct lines.' Moreover in regards to confusing meanings with reference this means that all concepts that are formed uniquely would be ruled out. Finally confusing universals with concepts this is simply an error that makes for a difficult argumentation. Having highlighted all of these weaknesses it is important to highlight some strengths. It was argued by Firehammer (2005) that Ayn Rand ultimately admired the strong and frowned upon weakness. In regards to the character development in her writings (And ultimately her outlook as a person) many her type characters were portrayed as being physically strong and of strong moral character. What this could translate to is an argument that it is the purpose of art to not only highlight what the world is but what is could be. In essence p eople should moralistically strive for better which is a wise philosophical outlook. In essence, Atlas sort of represent the societal members that make life worth living.
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Socio-Cultural impacts of late night tourists on residents of Ayia Napa - Essay Example After the 1974 war in Cyprus, Ayia Napa has developed from being a small fishing town to one of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s finest destinations. Through out the years it has experienced a mixture of changes in tourism demographics, by attracting visitors interested in the local culture twenty years ago to visitors who are mostly interested in clubbing now. This new inflow of mass tourism has affected the socio-cultural lifestyle of the village. Late night tourists are the visitors who come to Ayia Napa for clubbing and entertainment mainly. The number of the young tourists has rose in the last decades. Page and Connel (2009) argue that Sociocultural impacts are directly related with the host community of the destination and occur when tourists cause changes to the individual behaviour, social relationships, culture, lifestyle and value systems of the locals. Mathieson and Wall (1982) as well as Wolf (1977) agree and also state that the socio-cultural impacts are the different effects that tourists have on the host communities. Cooper et al (2008) note that the socio-cultural impacts can be both, positive and negative. Wall and Mathieson (2008) claim that most of the impacts are negative in contrast to the economic impacts that tourism can have on a host destination. Affeld (1975, cited in Wall and Mathieson, 2008) argues that the cultural and social impacts of tourism fall into three categories; the tourist, the host and tourist-host interrelationships. Fox (1977, cited in Wall and Mathieson, 2008, pp. 220) states that Ã¢â¬Å"The social and cultural impacts of tourism are the way in which tourism is contributing to changes in value systems, individual behaviour, family structure and relationships, collective lifestyles, safety levels, moral conduct, creative expressions, traditional ceremonies and community organisationsÃ¢â¬ . Goeldner and Ritchie (2006) notes that local peoples attitudes and mode of life is determined by the way visitors